List of known slaves in the Oregon Territory, most brought on the Oregon Trail from Missouri between 1843-1853.
List compiled by Greg Nokes.


Known Slaves County Year Arrived
Rachel Belden Marion 1843
unknown child* n/a 1843
Robin Holmes Polk 1844
Polly Holmes Polk 1844
Harriett Holmes Polk 1844
Celi Ann Holmes Polk 1844
Mary Jane Holmes Polk 1844
James Holmes Polk
Roxanna Holmes Polk
Scott Polk 1844
Hannah Gorman Polk 1844
Eliza Gorman Polk 1844
Maria Scott Polk 1846
Johnson Polk 1846
John Waldo slaves Marion 1846
Ame or Annie Benton 1847
Travis Johnson Marion 1849
Cora Cox Linn 1850
Adeline Cox (infant) Linn
Rosie Douglas 1852
Louis Southworth Benton** 1853
Louis’ mother unknown 1853
Amanda Johnson Linn 1853
Benjamin Johnson Linn 1853
Tom Davis Marion 1853
Susan Davis Marion 1853
Alice Linn unknown
Reuben Shipley Benton 1853
Alfred Drake Marion unknown
Elizabeth Drake Marion unknown
Mary Drake Marion unknown
Lon Drake Marion unknown
Joseph Drake Marion unknown
Drake child Marion unknown
2 James Abbott slaves*** Josephine 1853


Probable Slaves County  Year Arrived
Luteshia Carson Benton 1845
Carson (infant) Benton 1845
America Waldo Marion 1846****
America’s mother Marion 1846
Tilly Polk unknown
John Livingstone Clackamas 1864


Possible Slaves County Year Arrived
Caesar Taylor Benton unknown


Known Slaves, Washington County Year Arrived
Monimia Travers Clark***** 1850
Charles Mitchell Thurston 1855


List compiled from miscellaneous sources, including census and court records, emigrant accounts, newspaper articles, and family histories. It is by no means comprehensive, as the author found references to slaves who were not named, and some African Americans listed as servants in census records may have been slaves, but are not listed here. The author counted children who came to Oregon as slaves, but, in most cases, not those born in Oregon to a slave parent.

Exceptions were James and Roxanna Holmes, who were named in a court case, and Adeline Cox, listed as a slave in the 1860 Census. Some slaves were freed soon after arriving in Oregon; others held longer.

* The unidentified girl drowned near The Dalles during the 1843 emigration.

** Southworth lived in several counties. Others were Polk, Jackson and Lincoln.

*** Their Oregon-born children are known. They were Louisa and Peter Waldo. Following the shooting death of their father, Peter was apprenticed by court order to Joseph Lane, formerly Oregon’s first territorial governor and a U.S. senator.

**** The year America and mother arrived in Oregon is uncertain.

***** Clark County was part of the Oregon Territory in 1850; the Washington Territory was established in 1853.


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